Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Remedial Measures Paper Most of the governments all over the world have laws by which no one is suppose to exceed creating pollution in air or water beyond prescribed limits. Law breakers often face punishments to the tune of heavy fines and even stoppage of work. Opal, India gas tragedy is the best example to explain the necessity to take adds Tate measures to control pollution. Thousands of people were affected due to lack of adequate measures. The managing director of the company Union carbide, India was arrested and a warrant issued against the name of union carbide USA till he lived. Another example is the BEES plant at Daunt, India. While preparation of the feasibility report, plant designers had not considered the low auscultation Lana while starting the unit. With more than 10 years of litigation, it has surfaced now that the court had to order stoppage of work or take necessary steps. The above examples should be enough to make one understand the need to take measures to control pollution. Steps taken initially, would benefit in the long run. This is the reason we say Pollution Control Pays Back Earn while you Clean Main causes of Industrial Air Pollution In factories and industrial plants, the main culprit is the process adopted to manufacture chemicals etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Remedial Measures specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Remedial Measures specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Remedial Measures specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Manufacturing an item is required, but equally accessory is the necessity to control the pollutants created during this manufacturing process as byproducts. If a system is well designed to produce, chances of pollution are remote. However, many of the plant designers do not have the concept of pollution control in their minds while designing plants. They normally have the objective to design to manufacture the right product at low capital and power costs. Pollution is considered as optional. Due to this approach, most of the industrial plants generate large quantities of pollutants in air, mostly in form of gases. Another reason of this s the dearth of pollution control consultants. Each and every unit has to be doubly checked with in-house consultants to ensure that problems do not arise later. The main products polluting air are acid vapors, sulfur-did-oxide, chlorine, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, particulates, benzene byproducts etc. These products are not supposed to be released in the atmosphere. Also, as these products are expensive, prevention of these products also provides the owner some gains. Faulty pipes, duct joint openings are the main source from which these products escape. Steps to prevent Industrial Air pollution For existing plants, thorough study should be made to locate the sources. Pressures, Temperatures etc. Should be adjusted so that the leakages are minimum. At a level when reduction is not possible, steps should be taken to collect the same and then provide treatment. Plants designed 10 years or before or by lowly equipped designs are sure cases for detailed study. For prevention generous use of scrubbers filters will be necessary. It is said that a routine check will reduce 1 a minor modification will reduce 15-20% and a thorough overhauling of the system will reduce more than 30% of rower consumption and pollution creation. Industrial Water Pollution When various byproducts are released in drains they travel to the common drains. The washing of the equipment also adds water to this. These are the main causes of contamination of water. At present all the chemicals and water are collected at one place. This is subjected to effluent treatment. This is a compulsion for all units. Due to the running costs, medium and small scale unit owners try to circumvent this without realizing the folly. A restudy by an experienced pollution control advisor can reduce the costs substantially.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Analysation of the detective genre, Sherlock Holmes Essay Example Analysation of the detective genre, Sherlock Holmes Essay Analysation of the detective genre, Sherlock Holmes Essay Examine the detective genre through your study of a range of Sherlock Holmes stories, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. You should pay particular attention to the ways in which tension and suspense are created, demonstrate your knowledge of literary tradition and examine the social, historical and cultural context against which the stories are written. You should have read at least five Sherlock Holmes stories, and should refer in detail to at least three in your answer. During the Nineteenth-Century, the Detective Genre grew to be very popular. The public liked reading the series, as they felt physically involved in the mysteries. In every story, a crime would be committed, it would either be a Why Dunnit (you see who did it and the rest of the story tells you why), or a who dunnit (the criminal is concealed and the detective had to find them. A selection of clues would be shown to the readers, there could be red-herrings; this is a clue that is false as though to confuse you or surprise you. Often the detective will have a side-kick who is less observant than the detective; they act as an audience for the detective. There are lots of twists and turns, often the ending is a shock. The detective is often not involved in the police force, and works outside the law in some way. Regularly the detective can get into danger, but narrowly escapes. The fact that Coran Doyle used real locations made the readers feel associated in the mysteries. Although the storylines could be ghastly, people were interested to find out what happened rather like in a horror movie, people liked to be frightened in a controlled way, as the events are unlikely to happen in real life. The public were drawn in by the suspense and tension of the stories; they were interesting and built up in an exciting way. The Victorians became very interested in science, and the forensic way that Holmes solved the crimes suited their interests. The Sherlock Holmes Stories became serialised in magazines which were becoming more and more popular, due to the rise of commuters on public transport, as they needed something to read on their journeys. Also people were concerned and felt they wanted to learn more about how crimes worked, due to the rise in city crime, and in particular the gruesome Jack the Ripper murders. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh on 22 may 1859. His academic ability was realised at a Jesuit School; Stonyhurst College in Lancashire. He then left for Edinburgh, to study medicine. His first stories were published while he was still a student, but on completing his degree he made two journeys, as a ships doctor. He soon set up his own Practice in Southsea. Sherlock Holmes made its first appearance in a short novel which was printed in 1887. Conan Doyle creates suspense and tension in his stories by giving readers clues which leaves them to dwell in their mind on what may have happened. These clues may be genuine or red- herrings. Suspense is created through the character of Sherlock Holmes, as he is characterised very dramatically and carries out a lot of strange actions which turn out to be entirely necessary. The reader is made to be curious of Sherlock Holmes as they see how he notices so many small details of the cases, his intelligence and curiosity take him one step ahead every time. Watson, on the other hand, is Holmes right hand man, his intelligence is maybe not as decisive as Holmess, but any traditional detective story should not be without its less observant side-kick. In the stories Watson acts as an audience for Holmes and a narrator and reporter for the readers.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Reforms - Essay Example The changes have bought positive impacts from the view point of parliamentary democracy, parliamentary sovereignty and the rule of law. Two such reforms, introduced under the Labour Party reform agenda, are the House of Lords act, 1999 and Freedom of Information, 2000. The former reform was introduced with the goal to make the House of Lord more representative as well as democratic whereas the later was created to make the government operations more open and increase the democracy and sovereignty of the nation1. UK is a nation that follows parliamentary democracy i.e. the members who form the government body are also members of either of the two Houses of the Parliament (though there are a very few exceptions to this) and, the government of Britain is answerable to the Parliament as it owes its very existence to the Parliament. The Parliament of UK is also a sovereign parliament i.e. the legislative body is superior to any other government body inclusive of executive or judicial bodi es. In the United Kingdom, it is the Parliament which decides the laws and the work of the judges is to interpret it. They cannot themselves make a law2. Under the House of Lords reform, the right to sit and vote held by the hereditary peers was to be ended but the legislative powers of the House of Lords was to remain the same. No particular political party would then have majority in the House of Lords and its composition will be a reflection of the percentage of votes cast in the last General Election. When the first phase of this reform came, all but 92 of the then present hereditary peers were removed from the House of Lords. 3 This law positively affects the British democracy, as proposed by many scholars. According to the result of a poll, the British MPs too have favored a fully elected House of Lords in comparison to the traditional composition citing that a step like that will have a major impact on the British constitutional reform. The government of Britain was previousl y divided into commons and the lords i.e. the there existed a Ã¢â¬Å"lower houseÃ¢â¬ or popularly the Ã¢â¬Å"House of CommonÃ¢â¬ which comprised of elected members and on the other hand there existed the Ã¢â¬Å"upper houseÃ¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"House of LordsÃ¢â¬ who were unelected. The Lords believed themselves to be privileged who had either been put to the coveted seat by their fathers who sat on those chairs in the past or by the ruling party of their time. This arrangement was totally in contrast with the idea of democracy. The ultimate decision making power used to rest with the Lords and only when their decisions differed considerably with those of the Commons, the attempt to rule out those decisions used to be made. This highlights the existence of a large section of society with no important voice in the legislative process of the nation. This shows a democratic split. In a truly democratic country, problems like this would have never emerged. Therefore, it can be s aid that the House of Lords Act, 1999 was a step towards enhancing the democracy of the nation. (BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Deficient Democracy) The reformed House of Lords is more confident, authoritative and it is broadly a representation of the society it seeks to serve. It contains people from different parts of the United Kingdom, from varied professions, from all ethnic and religious communities, both men and women and hence it will be
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Object data modelling - Essay Example an online, web-based system that could allow their customers to (i) search for the availability and fares for the flight to the desired destination, (ii) make payments securely through a third-party payment system in order to book the tickets for the desired flight, (iii) view the real-time seating arrangement with available seats and select the desired seat in order to self-check-in, and (iv) print out the boarding card. PART I: ANALYSIS REPORT 1. Use-Cases & Use-Case Diagrams Use cases and use-case diagrams are the UML features for gathering and analysis of user-centric requirements. A use case can be defined as a particular purpose that can be achieved by the user (or say, actor) through the system (Chonoles & Schardt, 2003). A use-case diagram depicts a sequence of interactions between the actor and the system (Gomaa, 2011). 1.1. An Overview Use Case Model As shown in Figure 1, following are major use cases of the Ticket Booking and Self-Check-In System: Major Use Case 1: Search the desired flight After logging on to the Happy TourÃ¢â¬â¢s website, the customer can search for the availability and fares for the flights to the desired destination. In order to carry out the search, the customers must provide mandatory information to the system which includes personal details, the departure airport, the destination airport, intended outbound flight date and time. The customer may also provide optional information Ã¢â¬â the date and time for return trip, to make the search more accurate. Assumption: The search result lists flights with available seats; in other words, if all the seats in the flight are booked then that flight wonÃ¢â¬â¢t appear in the search result. Major Use Case 2: Book the ticket Once the customer has found the desired flight, she can move on to the booking process where she makes the payment through a third-party secure payment system. If the payment gets successfully processed, an automated confirmation email along with the receipt is sent out by the system to the email address provided by the customer. Major Use Case 3: Self-Check-In The customer can opt to perform self-check-in the booked flight anytime but 24 hours prior to the scheduled flight time. To self-check-in, the customer must search for the flight either through the booked flight number and booking reference number. If the flight is found and the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s booking is verified successfully, the system displays the real-time seating arrangement to the customer. The available seats are shown in blue color, while those already reserved are displayed in gray color. The customer can click on any one available seat to choose it, and then proceed to either
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Heroes Journey Archetype Stories There are few things that can stand the test of times, storytelling being one of these. Stories have been recorded and read for hundreds even thousands of years. Currently they are told through a variety of mediums, books, movies, play and a variety of other methods. With there being so many stories, there are bound to be reoccurring themes. These are often classified as archetypes or a model or pattern (Britannica). There is one that I find in the most common types of stories that captivate people the most, and that is the Heroes Journey Archetype. This archetype is a theme commonly found in old and new stories and develops the character through 12 steps into the ultimate being. In the words of Joseph Campbell A hero is someone who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneself. The best example I can think of a hero is Luke Skywalker, Master Jedi. Of course there are older more distinct heroes, such as the mighty Gilgamesh. I will explain the 12 steps of the hero archet ype and each of these heroes follow it perfectly. The Heroes Journey is often divided into the main group, and each one of those groups contains three to four of the 12 steps. The initial section for this archetype is called Separation. The first step in the journey is the ordinary world where the hero often finds them selves drudging though like on a day to day basis with nothing new or to exciting. For Gilgamesh this is when he does as he pleases as the king of Uruk. Luke Skywalker finds himself in the ordinary would as moisture farmer on the desert planet of Tatooine being raised as a moisture farmer by his Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru (Wikipedia). Both of these characters are going the same thing for numerous years and everything is ordinary for them. The next step is where things start to take a turn for our beloved hero, and this is the Call to Adventure. This sets the story rolling by disrupting the comfort of the Heros Ordinary World, presenting a challenge or quest that must be undertaken. In Star Wars this is easily identified , as Luke receives a message from Princess Leia as she needs to be rescued. Gilgamesh however is given a divine dream of his future mentor, Enkidu. A dream of this caliber is unusual for Gilgamesh and symbolized a great change for him. As you can see, both of these evens are throwing a kink into these heroes everyday lives, after doing something for so long though one is bound to become stubborn or obstinate and this leads to the third step, the Refusal of the Call. The Hero may not be willing to make changes, preferring the safe haven of the Ordinary World. This becomes an essential stage that communicates the risks involved in the Journey that lies ahead. Without risks and danger or the likelihood of failure, the audience will not be compelled to be a part of the Heros Journey. (Novak) Gilgamesh cannot understand his dreams and therefor is unable to being his process of change into the hero he is to become, but will soon find out. Luke on the other hand feels as if he must continu e to help his aunt and uncle, not wanting to abandon them to help another. These heroes need someone to guide them down the right patch, a mentor even. Meeting the Mentor is the fourth step and this is is the first real mark the of the approach to becoming something amazing. Gilgamesh encounter his hard opposite in Enkidu, and through the test of battle, they forge a friendship that will last a lifetime, ultimately leading the transformation of our hero. Skywalker meets Obi-Wan, his fathers old mentor that will guide him the same as he had done before, off of his home planet. One last push is needed for the hero to leave the ordinary world completely, and this is referred to as crossing the threshold. Here the Hero has finally committed to the Journey and is prepared to cross the gateway that separates the Ordinary World from the Special World. (Novak) Enkidu and Gilgamesh go off to fight Humbaba, which is the gateway that will rock both of there worlds. Luke escapes the planet from the stormtroopers and does not have much of a choice to leave his ordinary world. After this step, our heroes are fully separated. They do not have the luxury of returning from whence they came, and are becoming what they were meant to be. The second phase of the Heroes Journey Archetype is the Initiation and Transformation. Here is the meat of the story, and where the most action takes place, also known as the good stuff. After our beloved hero has crossed the big leap, he has many Tests, Allies, and Enemies. Here the hero learns the rules of this special world, finds out who can be trusted, allies learned, and prepares himself for what is to come. (Novak) For Gilgamesh, this is a very big stage. He and Enkidu, after defeating Humbaba, encounter the Bull of Heavens, which the consequences of defeating tests Gilgamesh to the core. His best friend Enkidu takes the fall for this event which leads him to question is own mortality. Gilgamesh says How can i rest, how can I be at peace? (Bedford Anthology 66) He goes into a daze for such a long time and has a long road ahead of him. Luke is tested by Obi-Wan and trains to become a Jedi. He also makes new allies in Han Solo and Chewbacca. They help him cross the threshold and end up saving him time and time again. His archenemy Darth Vader is also introduced, which leads to Luke losing a hand and learning who his father is. After these extraordinary events the hero knows what must be done and goes to face his final challenge, this is the Approach to the Inmost Cave. Attacks are planned, a reconnaissance launched, and possibly the enemies forces whittled down before the Hero can face his greatest fear, or the supreme danger lurking in the Special World. (Novak) After Gilgamesh questions his mortality he goes on a journey to find immortality and embarks on a long journey to get anywhere close to achieving this. Luke in Star Wars gets his planes ready and the rebel army gets into position to attack the Death Star. These events lead to the ultimate and final ordeal for the story, known as the Conflict. For Luke, this is the flight he must take to destroy the Death Star, and avoid his father to destroy what Vader has built. For Gilgamesh these are the tasks that Utnapishtim give him to obtain immortality. Although he gets close with the plant, he never achieves what he desires. After these Ordeal or Conflicts, the hero obtains a Reward for his task. The Reward comes in many forms: a magical sword, an elixir, greater knowledge or insight, reconciliation with a lover. Whatever the treasure, the Hero has earned the right to celebrate. (Novak) Greater knowledge or insight is definitely the reward for Luke, where he know the Rebel Alliance is able to go on the offensive and how to destroy the Sith Lords most powerful weapon. Gilgamesh also obtains this reward, although he did not achieve what he wanted, he is now able to be the king his kingdom needs him to be. This concludes the Initiation and Transformation section of the heroes journey archetype. The third and final section is the Return. In order for a hero to return from whence he came, he must take The Road Back. This could be hard due to the success in the Special World (Novak) and has become someone completely different. In the Story of Gilgamesh, the road back is simply the author telling us that he went back to Uruk. For Star Wars it is Luke returning to the Rebel Base and seeing all of his old friends. When the hero arrives back to the ordinary world he faces his Resurrection or cleansing and purification. Both Luke and Gilgamesh get out of there old worn out clothes and back into clothes that fit there role in the ordinary world again. The final step in this crazy journey is the Return with the Elixir where the elixir could be love, wisdom, or simply the experience of having survived the Special World. Gilgamesh loves his people and kingdom with a new found grace, while Luke Skywalker is lucky to even be alive but also receives the Rebel Medal of Honor for his heroic deeds. With these final steps both stories come to an end, and neither could of had a better ending. Stories have been told through all of history, and even though they share different mediums than they did long ago, they share many of the same elements. As Technology develops stories will continue to be told in various new ways. I would love to live past my time and see how things develop. As for heroes, they will continue to be a part of stories for decades even centuries to come. Now the way that they are developed, well using a set standard for hundreds of years can get old, so hopefully someone comes up with something revolutionary to literature that changes heroes for the best, but for now the grandeur of heroes will continue to enthrall me.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
THE THE MIST COUNTRIES Ã¢â¬â Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea & Turkey: Are MIST countries becoming the new BRICs? : For many investors, Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey have taken over from the BRICS becoming the four biggest emerging markets, and growing faster than their major rivals. BRIC inventor Jim OÃ¢â¬â¢Neil from Goldman Sachs proposed the new term MIST term for Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey, which are the four biggest markets in the Goldman Sachs N-11 Equity Fund. The MIST economies more than doubled during the last decade, according to Bloomberg, and continue surging despite global economy concerns.MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s IPC Index has climbed 11% this year, comparing with a 2. 8% growth of BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s Bovespa. Meanwhile TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s ISE National 100 gained 28 percent, compared to 13% gain of BSE India Sensitive Index and 2. 6% gain in RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s MICEX. Though the MIST nations outperformed the BRIC in pace of growth, its economic output still ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t approach the BRIC. Total GDP for the MIST nations was $3. 9 trillion last year, compared to $13. 5 trillion of BRIC economies and $7. 3 trillion for China alone. Comment: If you go to the Wikipedia page about BRIC you will read that Mexico and South Korea tried to become part of BRIC.It was used the name BRIMCÃ¢â¬ ¦. But it failed because the BRIC were Core-Hubs in their areas (Eurasia, South America, Far East, South East Asia) while the MIST are a second dependent layer around the Hub. In fact, and to be precise there are three World Hubs-Cores: USA, GERMANY (Eurozone) and CHINA. Turkey depends on Europe, Mexico depends on the US, South Korea depends on ChinaÃ¢â¬ ¦. So, if those hubs are hit, the MIST will be hit MUCH MORE, as we remember from the Bhat crisis. Russia could be an Eurasian and Energy Hub-CoreÃ¢â¬ ¦. even if still not fully developed, so it is still a layer of the E. U. Hub. Mexico Economy Ã¢â¬â overview:Mexico has a free market economy in the trillio n dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Since the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, Mexico's share of US imports has increased from 7% to 12%, and its share of Canadian imports has doubled to 5%.Mexico has free trade agreements with over 50 countries including Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan Ã¢â¬â putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2007, during its first year in office, the Felipe CALDERON administration was able to garner support from the opposition to successfully pass pension and fiscal reforms. The administration passed an e nergy reform measure in 2008 and another fiscal reform in 2009. MexicoÃ¢â¬ s GDP plunged 6. 2% in 2009 as world demand for exports dropped, asset prices tumbled, and remittances and investment declined. GDP posted positive growth of 5. % in 2010 and 3. 8% in 2011, with exports Ã¢â¬â particularly to the United States Ã¢â¬â leading the way. The administration continues to face many economic challenges, including improving the public education system, upgrading infrastructure, modernizing labor laws, and fostering private investment in the energy sector. CALDERON has stated that his top economic priorities remain reducing poverty and creating jobs. GDP (purchasing power parity) $1. 657 trillion (2011 est. ) $1. 596 trillion (2010 est. ) $1. 514 trillion (2009 est. ) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate) $1. 185 trillion (2011 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â real growth rate . 8% (2011 est. ) 5. 4% (2010 est. ) -6. 2% (2009 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â per capita (PPP) $1 5,100 (2011 est. ) $14,400 (2010) $13,600 (2009) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP Ã¢â¬â composition by sector agriculture:Ã 3. 8% industry:Ã 34. 2% services:Ã 62% (2011 est. ) Population below poverty line 18. 2% note:Ã based on food-based definition of poverty; asset based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2008) Labor force 49. 17 million (2011 est. ) Labor force Ã¢â¬â by occupation agriculture:Ã 13. 7% industry:Ã 23. 4% services:Ã 62. 9% (2005) Unemployment rate 5. 2% (2011 est. ) 5. 4% (2010 est. ) note:Ã underemployment may be as high as 25%Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 total:Ã 10% male:Ã 9. 7% female:Ã 10. 6% (2009) Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:Ã 1. 5% highest 10%:Ã 41. 4% (2008) Distribution of family income Ã¢â¬â Gini index 51. 7 (2008) 53. 1 (1998) Public debt 37. 5% of GDP (2011 est. ) 36. 9% of GDP (2010 est. ) Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3. 5% (2011 est. ) 4. 2% (2010 est. ) Central bank d iscount rate NA% (31 December 2010 est. ) 4. 5% (31 December 2009 est. ) Commercial bank prime lending rate 5% (31 December 2011 est. ) 5. 287% (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of domestic credit $407. 4 billion (31 December 2011 est. $374. 2 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Market value of publicly traded shares $454. 3 billion (31 December 2010) $340. 6 billion (31 December 2009) $232. 6 billion (31 December 2008) Agriculture Ã¢â¬â products corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products Industries food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism Industrial production growth rate 3. 9% (2011 est. ) Current Account Balance -$11. 27 billion (2011 est. ) -$5. 724 billion (2010 est. ) Exports $336. billion (2011 est. ) $298. 5 billion (2010 est. ) Exports Ã¢â¬â commodities manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits , vegetables, coffee, cotton Exports Ã¢â¬â partners US 73. 5%, Canada 7. 5% (2009 est. ) Imports $341. 9 billion (2011 est. ) $301. 5 billion (2010 est. ) Imports Ã¢â¬â commodities metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts Imports Ã¢â¬â partners US 60. 6%, China 6. 6%, South Korea 5. 2% (2009 est. ) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $142 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) 114 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Debt Ã¢â¬â external $204 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $195. 6 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â at home $321. 5 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $326. 1 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â abroad $84. 92 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $78. 38 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Exchange rates Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar Ã¢â¬â 12. 39 (2011 est. ) 12. 636 (2010 est. ) 13. 514 (2009) 11. 016 (2008) 10. 8 (2007) Fiscal year calendar year Indonesia Economy Ã¢â¬â overview: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, grew an estimated 6. % and 6. 4% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09), introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25%, a small current ccount surplus, a fiscal deficit below 2%, and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with pov erty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government in 2012 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, labor unrest over wages, and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of rising oil prices.GDP (purchasing power parity) $1. 121 trillion (2011 est. ) $1. 054 trillion (2010 est. ) $993 billion (2009 est. ) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate) $834. 3 billion (2011 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â real growth rate 6. 4% (2011 est. ) 6. 1% (2010 est. ) 4. 6% (2009 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â per capita (PPP) $4,700 (2011 est. ) $4,400 (2010 est. ) $4,300 (2009 est. ) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP Ã¢â¬â composition by sector agriculture:Ã 14. 7% industry:Ã 47. 2% services:Ã 38. 1% (2011 est. ) Population below poverty line 13. 33% (2010) Labor force 117. 4 million (2 011 est. )Labor force Ã¢â¬â by occupation agriculture:Ã 38. 3% industry:Ã 12. 8% services:Ã 48. 9% (2010 est. ) Unemployment rate 6. 6% (2011 est. ) 7. 9% (2010 est. ) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 total:Ã 22. 2% male:Ã 21. 6% female:Ã 23% (2009) Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:Ã 3. 3% highest 10%:Ã 29. 9% (2009) Distribution of family income Ã¢â¬â Gini index 36. 8 (2009) 39. 4 (2005) Public debt 24. 5% of GDP (2011 est. ) 25. 7% of GDP (2010 est. ) Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5. 7% (2011 est. ) 5. 1% (2010 est. ) Central bank discount rate 6. 37% (31 December 2010) 6. 46% (31 December 2009) ote:Ã this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010 Commercial bank prime lending rate 12. 2% (31 December 2011 est. ) 13. 252% (31 December 2010 est. ) note:Ã these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans Stock of domestic cre dit $305. 2 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $254. 1 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Market value of publicly traded shares $360. 4 billion (31 December 2010) $178. 2 billion (31 December 2009) $98. 76 billion (31 December 2008) Agriculture Ã¢â¬â products ice, cassava (manioc), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs Industries petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism Industrial production growth rate 4. 1% (2011 est. ) Current Account Balance $5. 704 billion (2011 est. ) $5. 654 billion (2010 est. ) Exports $208. 9 billion (2011 est. ) $158. 1 billion (2010 est. ) Exports Ã¢â¬â commodities oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber Exports Ã¢â¬â partners Japan 16. 3%, China 10%, US 9. 1%, Singapore 8. 7%, South Korea 8%, India 6. %, Malaysia 5. 9% (2009) Imports $172. 1 billion (2011 est. ) $127. 4 billion (2010 est. ) Imports Ã¢â¬â commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs Imports Ã¢â¬â partners China 15. 1%, Singapore 14. 9%, Japan 12. 5%, US 6. 9%, Malaysia 6. 4%, South Korea 5. 7%, Thailand 5. 5% (2009) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $136. 2 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $96. 21 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Debt Ã¢â¬â external $158. 8 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $196. 1 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â at home $105. 7 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $86. 5 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â abroad $41. 89 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $32. 85 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Exchange rates Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar Ã¢â¬â 8,696. 1 (2011 est. ) 9,090. 43 (2010 est. ) 10,389. 9 (2009) 9,698. 9 (2008) 9,143 (2007) Fiscal year calendar year South Korea Economy Ã¢â¬â overview South Korea over the past four decades has demonstrated incredible growth and global integration to become a high-tech industrialized economy. In the 1960s, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of Africa and Asia.In 2004, South Korea joined the trillion dollar club of world economies, and currently is among the world's 20 largest economies. Initially, a system of close government and business ties, including directed credit and import restrictions, made this success possible. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods, and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 exposed longstanding weaknesses in South KoreaÃ¢â¬ s development model including high debt/equity ratios and massive short-term foreign borrowing.GDP plunged by 6. 9% in 1998, and then recovered by 9% in 1999-2000. Korea adopted numerous economic reforms following the crisis, including greater openness to foreign investment and imports. Growth moderated to about 4% annual ly between 2003 and 2007. With the global economic downturn in late 2008, South Korean GDP growth slowed to 0. 3% in 2009. In the third quarter of 2009, the economy began to recover, in large part due to export growth, low interest rates, and an expansionary fiscal policy, and growth was 3. 6% in 2011. In 2011, theUS-South Korea Free Trade Agreement was ratified by both governments and is projected to go into effect in early 2012. The South Korean economyÃ¢â¬ s long term challenges include a rapidly aging population, inflexible labor market, and heavy reliance on exports Ã¢â¬â which comprise half of GDP. GDP (purchasing power parity) $1. 549 trillion (2011 est. ) $1. 495 trillion (2010 est. ) $1. 409 trillion (2009 est. ) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate) $1. 164 trillion (2011 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â real growth rate 3. 6% (2011 est. ) 6. 2% (2010 est. ) 0. 3% (2009 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â per capita (PPP) 31,700 (2011 est. ) $30,600 (2010 est. ) $28,90 0 (2009 est. ) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP Ã¢â¬â composition by sector agriculture:Ã 2. 6% industry:Ã 39. 2% services:Ã 58. 2% (2008 est. ) Population below poverty line 15% (2006 est. ) Labor force 25. 1 million (2011 est. ) Labor force Ã¢â¬â by occupation agriculture:Ã 6. 4% industry:Ã 24. 2% services:Ã 69. 4% (2011 est. ) Unemployment rate 3. 4% (2011 est. ) 3. 7% (2010 est. ) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 total:Ã 9. 8% male:Ã 11. 9% female:Ã 8. 5% (2009) Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:Ã 2. 7% highest 10%:Ã 24. 2% (2007)Distribution of family income Ã¢â¬â Gini index 31 (2010) 35. 8 (2000) Public debt 33. 3% of GDP (2011 est. ) 35. 1% of GDP (2010 est. ) Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2011 est. ) 3% (2010 est. ) Central bank discount rate 1. 5% (31 December 2011) 1. 25% (31 December 2009) Commercial bank prime lending rate 5. 9% (31 December 2011 est. ) 5. 508% (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of dome stic credit $1. 356 trillion (31 December 2011 est. ) $1. 275 trillion (31 December 2010 est. ) Market value of publicly traded shares $996. 7 billion (31 December 2011) $1. 093 trillion (31 December 2010) $836. billion (31 December 2009) Agriculture Ã¢â¬â products rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish Industries electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel Industrial production growth rate 3. 8% (2011 est. ) Current Account Balance $29. 79 billion (2011 est. ) $28. 21 billion (2010 est. ) Exports $556. 5 billion (2011 est. ) $466. 4 billion (2010 est. ) Exports Ã¢â¬â commodities semiconductors, wireless telecommunications equipment, motor vehicles, computers, steel, ships, petrochemicals Exports Ã¢â¬â partners China 24. %, US 10. 1%, Japan 7. 1% (2009 est. ) Imports $524. 4 billion (2011 est. ) $425. 2 billion (2010 est. ) Imports Ã¢â¬â commodities machinery, electronics and electr onic equipment, oil, steel, transport equipment, organic chemicals, plastics Imports Ã¢â¬â partners China 16. 5%, Japan 13%, US 8. 5%, Saudi Arabia 7. 1%, Australia 5% (2009 est. ) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $306. 4 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $291. 6 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Debt Ã¢â¬â external $397. 3 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $359. 4 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â at home 130. 3 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $127 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â abroad $190. 4 billion (31 December 2011) $164. 8 billion (31 December 2009) Exchange rate South Korean won (KRW) per US dollar Ã¢â¬â 1,107. 3 (2011 est. ) 1,156. 06 (2010 est. ) 1,276. 93 (2009) 1,101. 7 (2008) 929. 2 (2007) Fiscal year calendar year Turkey Economy Ã¢â¬â overview Turkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agri culture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment.An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, construction, and electronics industries, are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market.Several gas pipelines projects also are moving forward to help transport Central Asian gas to Europe through Turkey, which over the long term will help address Turkey's dependence on imported oil and gas to meet 97% of its energy needs. After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal refor ms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth Ã¢â¬â averaging more than 6% annually until 2008.Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis and GDP rebounded strongly to 8. 2% in 2010, as exports returned to normal levels following the recession. Turkey's public sector debt to GDP ratio has fallen to roughly 40%. Continued strong growth has pushed inflation to the 8% level, however, and worsened an already high current account deficit. Turkey remains dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large trade deficit.The stock value of FDI stood at $99 billion at year-end 2011. Inflows have slowed considerably in light of continuing economic turmoil in Europe, the source of much of Turkey's FDI. Further economic and judici al reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost Turkey's attractiveness to foreign investors. However, Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, uncertainty related to monetary policy-making, and political turmoil within Turkey's neighborhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.GDP (purchasing power parity) $1. 026 trillion (2011 est. ) $981. 2 billion (2010 est. ) $906. 9 billion (2009 est. ) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate) $763. 1 billion (2011 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â real growth rate 4. 6% (2011 est. ) 8. 2% (2010 est. ) -4. 7% (2009 est. ) GDP Ã¢â¬â per capita (PPP) $14,600 (2011 est. ) $13,800 (2010 est. ) $12,900 (2009 est. ) note:Ã data are in 2011 US dollars GDP Ã¢â¬â composition by sector agriculture:Ã 9. 3% industry:Ã 28. 1% services:Ã 62. 6% (2011 est. ) Population below poverty line 16. 9% (2010) Labor force 27. 3 million note:Ã about 1. 2 million Turks work abroa d (2011 est. ) Labor force Ã¢â¬â by occupation agriculture:Ã 25. 5% industry:Ã 26. 2% services:Ã 48. 4% (2010) Unemployment rate 9. 8% (2011 est. ) 12% (2010 est. ) note:Ã underemployment amounted to 4% in 2008 Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 total:Ã 25. 3% male:Ã 25. 4% female:Ã 25. 1% (2009) Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:Ã 2. 1% highest 10%:Ã 30. 3% (2008) Distribution of family income Ã¢â¬â Gini index 40. 2 (2010) 43. 6 (2003) Public debt 42. 4% of GDP (2011 est. ) 43% of GDP (2010 est. ) ote:Ã data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment. Debt inst ruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions. Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7. 8% (2011 est. ) 8. 6% (2010 est. ) Central bank discount rate 5. 25% (31 December 2011) 15% (22 December 2009)Commercial bank prime lending rate 16% (31 December 2011 est. ) 19% (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of domestic credit $573. 8 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $496 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Market value of publicly traded shares $306. 7 billion (31 December 2010) $225. 7 billion (31 December 2009) $117. 9 billion (31 December 2008) Agriculture Ã¢â¬â products tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock Industries textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper Industrial production growth rate 9. 2% (2011 est. Current Account Balance -$71. 94 billion (2011 est. ) -$47. 74 billion (2010 est. ) Exports $133 billion (2011 est. ) $120. 9 billion (2010 est. ) Exports Ã¢â¬â commodities apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment Exports Ã¢â¬â partners Germany 10. 1%, UK 6. 4%, Italy 5. 7%, France 5. 3%, Iraq 5. 3%, Russia 4. 1% (2009 est. ) Imports $212. 2 billion (2011 est. ) $177. 3 billion (2010 est. ) Imports Ã¢â¬â commodities machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment Imports Ã¢â¬â partners Russia 11. 6%, Germany 9. 5%, China 9. 3%, US 6. 6%, Italy 5. 5%, France 4. 4%, Iran 4. 1% (2009 est. )Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $96. 05 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $86. 08 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Debt Ã¢â¬â external $313. 6 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $290. 7 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â at home $98. 98 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $86. 98 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Stock of direct foreign investment Ã¢â¬â abroad $18. 63 billion (31 December 2011 est. ) $16. 88 billion (31 December 2010 est. ) Exchange rates Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar Ã¢â¬â 1. 668 (2011 est. ) 1. 5028 (2010 est. ) 1. 55 (2009) 1. 3179 (2008) 1. 319 (2007) Fiscal year calendar year
Friday, January 10, 2020
1. The history of automobile The first working steam-powered vehicle was probably designed by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65 cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger. It is not known if Verbiest's model was ever built. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769; he created a steam-powered tricycle. He also constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. His inventions were however handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and was of little practical use. In 1807 Nice phore Nie and his brother Claude probably created the world's pce first internal combustion engine which they called a Pyre olophore, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor Franc Isaac de Rivaz designed his own Ã¢â¬Ëde Rivaz internal combustion ois engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle, to be powered by such an engine. The Nie pces' Pyre olophore was fuelled by a mixture of Lycopodium powder (dried Lycopodium moss), finely crushed coal dust and resin that were mixed with oil, whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Neither design was very successful, as was the case with others, such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines. In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouve demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile powered by electricity at the International Exposition of Electricity, Paris. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885, and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie. , which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components, and included several new technological elements to create a new concept. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888. In 1879, Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. His first Motorwagen was built in 1885, and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886, and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. Bertha Benz, the first long distance automobile driver in the world In August 1888 Bertha Benz, the wife of Karl Benz, undertook the first road trip by car, to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention. In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called boxermotor. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and, because of its size, Benz & Cie. , became a joint-stock company. Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890, and sold their first automobile in 1892 under the brand name, Daimler. It was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after disputes with their backers. Benz, Maybach and the Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each others' early work. They never worked together; by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG. Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes, that was placed in a specially ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers. Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest, valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly, although keeping their respective brands. On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz, as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35 hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929, and at imes, his two sons participated in the management of the company as well. In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France. The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was made in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York. Selden applied for a patent for an automobi le in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on November 5, 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U. S. Patent 549,160) for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered, more than encouraged, development of automobiles in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911. In 1893, the first running, gasoline-powered American car was built and road-tested by the Duryea brothers of Springfield, Massachusetts. The first public run of the Duryea Motor Wagon took place on September 21, 1893, on Taylor Street in Metro Center Springfield. To construct the Duryea Motor Wagon, the brothers had purchased a used horse-drawn buggy for $70 and then installed a 4 HP, single cylinder gasoline engine. The car had a friction transmission, spray carburetor, and low tension ignition. It was road-tested again on November 10, when the The Springfield Republican newspaper made the announcement. This particular car was put into storage in 1894 and stayed there until 1920 when it was rescued by Inglis M. Uppercu and presented to the United States National Museum. 2. Direction of automobile industry 2. Fuel technology As we all know, the earth's resources are limited, so human beings develop fuel technology, let us make better use of these resources. There are many resources we can use, like Air engine, Battery-electric, Solar, Bioalcohol, Hydrogen and Hybrid vehicle. A hybrid vehicle uses multiple propulsion systems to provide motive power. The most common type of hybrid vehicle is the gasoli ne-electric hybrid vehicles, which use gasoline (petrol) and electric batteries for the energy used to power internal-combustion engines (ICEs) and electric motors. These motors are usually relatively small and would be considered Ã¢â¬Å"underpoweredÃ¢â¬ by themselves, but they can provide a normal driving experience when used in combination during acceleration and other maneuvers that require greater power. The Toyota Prius first went on sale in Japan in 1997 and it is sold worldwide since 2000. By 2010 the Prius is sold in more than 70 countries and regions, with Japan and the United States as its largest markets. In May 2008, global cumulative Prius sales reached the 1 million units, and by September 2010, the Prius reached worldwide cumulative sales of 2 million units. The United States is the largest hybrid market in the world, with more than 2 million hybrid automobiles and SUVs sold through May 2011. The Prius is the top selling hybrid car in the U. S. with 1 million units sold by April 2011. The Honda Insight is a two-seater hatchback hybrid automobile manufactured by Honda. It was the first mass-produced hybrid automobile sold in the United States, introduced in 1999, and produced until 2006. Honda introduced the second-generation Insight in Japan in February 2009, and the new Insight went on sale in the U. S. on April 22, 2009. Honda also offers the Honda Civic Hybrid since 2002. Among others, the following are popular gasoline-electric hybrid models available in the market by 2009: Ford Escape Hybrid, Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Mercury Mariner Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Saturn Vue Green Line, Lexus LS600hL, Mazda Tribute Hybrid, Nissan Altima Hybrid, Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan Hybrid, and Mercedes S400 BlueHybrid. Several major carmakers are currently developing plug-in hybrid electric ehicles (PHEVs). Chinese battery manufacturer and automaker BYD Auto released the F3DM PHEV-68 (PHEV109km) hatchback to the Chinese fleet market on December 15, 2008. The 2011 Chevrolet Volt is the first mass produced PHEV launched in the United States, and it was introduced in November 2010. Other PHEVs undergoing field testing as of December 2010 include the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid, Volvo V70 Plug-in Hybrid, and S uzuki Swift Plug-in. The Sinclair C5 pedal-assisted battery vehicle. The Elantra LPI Hybrid, launched in the South Korean domestic market in July 2009, is a hybrid vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine built to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel. The Elantra PLI is a mild hybrid and the first hybrid to adopt advanced lithium polymer (LiÃ¢â¬âPoly) batteries. 2. 2 Driverless car A driverless car is a vehicle equipped with an autopilot system that is capable of driving from one point to another without guidance by a human operator. This is intended to produce several direct advantages: 1. Avoiding crashes by eliminating driver error 2. Increasing roadway capacity by reducing the distances between cars and better managing traffic flow 3. Relieving vehicle occupants from driving and navigating chores, so allowing them to concentrate on other tasks or to rest during their journeys Indirect advantages are anticipated as well. Adoption of driverless cars could reduce the number of vehicles worldwide and eliminate the need for driver's licenses, rules of the road, traffic lights, traffic signs, highway patrols and vehicle insurances. The systems currently under development work by simulating human perception and decision-making during steering of a car via advanced computer software linked to a range of sensors such as cameras, radar and GPS. Current driverless passenger car programs include the 2 get there passenger vehicles from the Netherlands, the DARPA Grand Challenge from the USA, and Google driverless car.